강의를 할때, 인종별로 수입을 비교해보면 Asian American이 White American, Black, Hispanic보다
Average Income이 가장 높은 결과가 있음을 소개해 드린적이 있습니다.
2015년 Pew Research Center의 조사결과에 따르면, Asian American men의 시간당 수입의
중간값(Median)은 24USD로 White American men의 시간당 21USD를 앞섰습니다.
women의 경우에도 Asian American이 White American 보다 시간당 1USD가 더 높았습니다.
정량적인 비교를 하였을때, 평균적으로 높다는 것은 분명히 매우 의미 있는 결과입니다.
하지만 이런 Asian American과 사회의 노력의 결과가 다시 차별의 이유가 되어서는 안되겠죠.
기사에도 나와있듯이 Model Minority라는 개념이 있습니다
A model minority is a minority group (whether based on ethnicity, race or religion) whose members are perceived to achieve a higher degree of socioeconomic success than the population average. (Wikipedia)
주를 이루고 있는 인종, 종교 보다 상대적으로 적은 수의 구성원들이 SES(Social Economic Status)에서
평균보다 높은 결과를 보여줄때 그 구성원들을 Model Minority라 칭합니다.
Model Minority는 높은 경제, 사회적 지위를 얻었지만, 사회-경제 분야에서 높은 지위를 가졌다는 이유로
오히려 다른 문화적, 역사적 부분에서 차별을 받기도 합니다.
기사의 예를 빌리자면, 구글, 야후, HP와 같은 기업의 Asian American과 White American이
같은 비율로 직업 수를 가지고 있습니다. 하지만 임원의 비율로 두 인종을 비교했을때는
White American이 임원이 될 확률이 Asian American보다 153퍼센트나 높다고 합니다.
미국이 Diversity의 진정한 힘을 보여주려 한다면 인종으로 인한 차별을 모든 분야에서 최소화하려는
인종별 Income 분석 및 함의점 아래 기사를 통해 확인하여 보시죠:)
A new report shows that men’s and women’s wages are closer to parity than they’ve ever been, but white men and women aren’t necessarily the highest wage earners.
The Pew Research Center found that Asian men’s median hourly earnings were higher than white men’s — $24 to $21, respectively. Asian women also earned more than white women ($18 per hour versus $17 per hour) and black and Hispanic wage earners regardless of gender, whose median hourly earnings were between $12 and $15.
White women now earn 22 cents more to every white man’s dollar than they did in 1980, with Asian-American women following a similar trajectory.
Other demographics are experiencing growth at a far more sluggish pace (if at all). During the same time period, African-American women only earned 9 more cents and Hispanic women only early 5 more cents. Meanwhile, black and Hispanic men’s wages have remained relatively stagnant. Across the past 35 years, black men still only make 73 percent of white men’s wages. Hispanic men have seen almost negligible growth, from earning 69 percent of white men’s earnings to 71 percent.
White men remain the group with which others are compared, in part, because they comprise the largest group in the workforce today (33 percent). Similarly, when discussing the average gender wage gap, white women are centered, with the caveat that women of color fair worse.
But as Asian Americans earn bigger paychecks, it’s important not to use the data on the group’s earnings to overlook racial discrimination that persists for them and other communities of color in the workforce.
Higher wages don’t shatter glass ceilings
According to the Pew study, Asian men are making 117 percent of white men’s wages, and Asian women are closer to closing the wage gap with white men than white women. But one of the dangers of taking the wage increase at face value for Asian Americans is that it perpetuates the “modelminority” myth — that Asians, unlike other people of color, are uniquely primed to climb up the socioeconomic ladder.
Higher test scores and wages may be cited as evidence of Asian Americans’ perceived advantages. But too often these facts are used to castigate other marginalized groups of color for not achieving the same milestones, denying historical inequalities they face while simultaneously denying the fact that Asian Americans face racial discrimination too.
The tech industry is just one example. A 2015 study by the Ascend Foundation, a nonprofit pan-Asian organization, showed that even though there were roughly the same number of white and Asian professionals employed at companies like Google, LinkedIn, Yahoo, HP and Intel, white men and women were nearly 154 percent more likely to become executives compared with their Asian peers.
Asian women were most underrepresented relative to their representation in the workforce: Asian women comprised 13.5 percent of professionals surveyed but only accounted for 3.1 percent of executives across these five major tech companies.
The tech industry, in general, has a diversity problem. For instance, Asian Americans make up 6 percent of the workforce and 17 percent of tech and engineering workers. And while parity across racial demographics is necessary, it does not change the fact that Asian Americans stand as a group of color that is denied access to greater opportunities.
A 2014 report by Karthick Ramakrishnan and Farah Z. Ahmad at the Center for American Progress showed that while Asians have higher median household incomes ($71,709) than the national average ($53,046), there is considerable variation within the group.
The median household income for Indian Americans, Filipino Americans, and Japanese Americans was $95,000, $80,000, and $78,000, respectively — far surpassing Cambodian ($53,700) and Bangladeshi ($46,950) households.
In part, this is a symptom of the complex history of Asian immigrants in the US sincethe 1970s and ’80s. The CAP report found that Indian and Filipino Americans are more likely to have higher household incomes as a consequence of migrating to the US for better employment opportunities, “characterized by a relatively high level of employer-based, high-skilled visas.”
By contrast, immigrants from Southeast Asia who arrived as refugees from countries like Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos are more likely to be impoverished, with lower levels of household income.
At the very least, the gender and race wage gap in the United States is shifting. But what Pew’s new data shows is that context is critical to seeing how far we still have to go, even when the numbers are better than they’ve ever been.